Elaine Wah

Modern Markets, Modern Metrics - A Blog By IEX

In this blog by IEX's Elaine Wah, the newest public exchange looks to refute public claims that the metrics it uses are designed to inflate its own volume numbers and mislead people.

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April 16, 2007

Looking Beyond Pennies

The nitty-gritty on portfolio margining and its expected impact

By Susan Milligan

The U.S. listed options marketplace is facing two important structural changes this year. The first of these is the pilot plan that began in February to quote options in penny increments. Thirteen options classes were included in the pilot as a test for the industry. Moving from nickel and dime increments to pennies has produced a wide range of predictions, many based on decimalization in the stock markets in 2001. Dire warnings of imploding market data systems and a loss of liquidity providers are countered with sunny forecasts of pennies giving a turbo boost to the already tremendous options volume growth.

Outside of exchange consolidation rumors, nothing is being talked about more than penny trading. However, it is the second-and more subtle-change that has the potential to have a much greater impact on the marketplace. That impact is almost universally seen as a positive force for expanding options trading volume.

Leap Forward

On April 2, new rules allowing broker-dealers to use a risk-based portfolio approach for the margining of customer accounts took effect. This expansion of customer portfolio margining helps U.S. equities markets take a major leap forward, allowing securities firms to participate on a level playing field with the futures and international equities markets with regard to customer margining. Previously, margin rules governing U.S. equity markets followed a strategy-based approach requiring broker-dealers to identify approved hedged positions (or strategies) and imposed a set margin requirement for each position. Portfolio margining now allows broker-dealers to group products based on a related underlying asset into portfolios, with the margin requirement based on the risk of the portfolio, as opposed to a set amount.

Under these new rules, risk-based customer portfolio margining will be based on the Options Clearing Corp.'s TIMS margin methodology, which determines the maximum loss associated with a portfolio, given a percentage move in an underlying asset. A portfolio containing offsetting positions in the derivative and underlying asset reflects less market risk and requires less equity to collateralize the account. This margining method adds leverage to customers' capital available for reinvestment.

Long Effort

Risk-based margins for customers have been the standard for U.S. futures and international securities markets for years. While customers in these markets have been enjoying the benefits of portfolio margining, it has taken a long-term effort to bring customer portfolio margining to the U.S. securities markets.

In January 1998, the Federal Reserve amended Regulation T, which opened the door for portfolio margining. The Fed was explicitly seeking to advance the use of portfolio margining with these changes. The Fed left it to the industry and the Securities and Exchange Commission to work out the details.

Working out those details required years of negotiation. After many years of discussion, in early 2002, the Chicago Board Options Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange filed rule changes with the SEC to allow portfolio margining for a limited class of customers in limited types of instruments. Those rule changes, and subsequent amendments, eventually led to a customer portfolio-margining pilot program that was finally approved in July 2005. This first phase of the pilot, however, limited the eligible asset classes to broad-based index options and futures, and related products.

Congress Involved